Vitamin B12 Deficiency: What are the consequences?

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Scientific publications

Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Bariatric Surgery

  1. Grange DK, Finlay JL. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in a breastfed infant following maternal gastric bypass. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1994 May-Jun;11(3):311-8.

  2. Juhasz-Pocsine K, Rudnicki SA, Archer RL, Harik SI. Neurologic complications of gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. Neurology. 2007 May 22;68(21):1843-50.

  3. Becker DA, Balcer LJ, Galetta SL. The Neurological Complications of Nutritional Deficiency following Bariatric Surgery. J Obes. 2012;2012:608534. doi: 10.1155/2012/608534. Epub 2012 Jun 13

  4. Carvalho IR, Loscalzo IT, Freitas MF, Jordão RE, Friano Tde C. Incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients submitted to Fobi-Capella Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery. Arq Bras Cir Dig. 2012 Mar;25(1):36-40..

  5. Vieira C, Cosmo C, Lucena R. The importance of methylmalonic acid dosage on the assessment of patients with neurological manifestations following bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2011 Dec;21(12):1971-4. Review

  6. Rudnicki SA. Prevention and treatment of peripheral neuropathy after bariatric surgery. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2010 Jan;12(1):29-36

  7. Frank P, Crookes PF Short- and long-term surgical follow-up of the postbariatric surgery patient. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2010 Mar;39(1):135-46.

  8. Muñoz M, Botella-Romero F, Gómez-Ramírez S, Campos A, García-Erce JA. Iron deficiency and anaemia in bariatric surgical patients: causes, diagnosis and proper management. Nutr Hosp. 2009 Nov-Dec;24(6):640-54. Review

  9. Fernández-Bañares F, Monzón H, Forné M. A short review of malabsorption and anemia. World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Oct 7;15(37):4644-52. Review

  10. Celiker MY, Chawla A. Congenital B12 deficiency following maternal gastric bypass. J Perinatol. 2009 Sep;29(9):640-2

  11. von Drygalski A, Andris DA. Anemia after bariatric surgery: more than just iron deficiency. Nutr Clin Pract. 2009 Apr-May;24(2):217-26. Review

  12. Vargas-Ruiz AG, Hernández-Rivera G, Herrera MF. Prevalence of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2008 Mar;18(3):288-93. Epub 2008 Jan 23

  13. Iverson D, McKenzie M. Neurologic complications of gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. Neurology. 2008 Jan 22;70(4):324; author reply 324-5.

  14. Poitou Bernert C, Ciangura C, Coupaye M, Czernichow S, Bouillot JL, Basdevant A. Nutritional deficiency after gastric bypass: diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Diabetes Metab. 2007 Feb;33(1):13-24. Epub 2007 Jan 26. Review

  15. Shah M, Simha V, Garg A. Review: long-term impact of bariatric surgery on body weight, comorbidities, and nutritional status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4223-31. Epub 2006 Sep 5. Review

  16. A. C. L. Clark, C. C. BoothDeficiency of Vitamin B12 After Extensive Resection of the Distal Small Intestine in an Infant Arch Dis Child. 1960 December; 35(184): 595–599.

  17.  I. J. Wood, M. Ralston, B. Ungar, D. C. Cowling Vitamin B12 deficiency in chronic gastritis Gut. 1964 February; 5(1): 27–37.

  18. Rhode BM, Arseneau P, Cooper BA, Katz M, Gilfix BM, MacLean LD. Vitamin B-12 deficiency after gastric surgery for obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996 Jan;63(1):103-9.

  19. Rhode BM, Tamin H, Gilfix BM, Sampalis JS, Nohr C, MacLean LD. Treatment of Vitamin B12 Deficiency after Gastric Surgery for Severe Obesity. Obes Surg. 1995 May;5(2):154-158.

  20. MacLean LD, Rhode BM, Shizgal HM. Nutrition following gastric operations for morbid obesity.Ann Surg. 1983 Sep;198(3):347-55

Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Alzheimer's Disease 

  1. Moore E, Mander A, Ames D, Carne R, Sanders K, Watters D Cognitive impairment and vitamin B12: a review. Int Psychogeriatr. 2012 Jan 6:1-16. [Epub ahead of print]

  2. McCaddon, A. and Kelly, C.L. Familial Alzheimer's disease and vitamin B12 deficiency. Age and Ageing, Vol. 23, July 1994, pp. 334-37

  3. Wang, H-X, et al. Vitamin B12 and folate in relation to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, Vol. 56, No. 9, May 8, 2001, pp. 1188-94

  4. Miller, Joshua W. Vitamin B12 deficiency, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor: a novel function of vitamin B12? Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 60, May 2002, pp. 142-51

  5. Eussen, S. J. Effect of oral vitamin B-12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B-12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 84, August 2006, pp. 361-70

  6. Pennypacker LC, Allen RH, Kelly JP, Matthews LM, Grigsby J, Kaye K, Lindenbaum J, Stabler SP. High prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in elderly outpatients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992 Dec;40(12):1197-204.

Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Dementia 

  1. Wilson J, Langman MJ. Relation of sub-acute combined degeneration of the cord to vitamin B 12 deficiency. Nature. 1966 Nov 19;212(5064):787-9

  2. Oxnard CE, Smith WT. Neurological degeneration and reduced serum vitamin B12-levels in captive monkeys. Nature. 1966 Apr 30;210(5035):507-9.

  3. Green R, Van Tonder SV, Oettle GJ, Cole G, Metz J. Neurological changes in fruit bats deficient in vitamin B12. Nature. 1975 Mar 13;254(5496):148-50.

  4. Zucker DK, Livingston RL, Nakra R, Clayton PJ. B12 deficiency and psychiatric disorders: case report and literature review. Biol Psychiatry. 1981 Feb;16(2):197-205. Review

  5. Weber GA, Sloan P, Davies D. Nutritionally induced peripheral neuropathies. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 1990 Jan;7(1):107-28. Review

  6. Tangney CC, Aggarwal NT, Li H, Wilson RS, Decarli C, Evans DA, Morris MC. Vitamin B12, cognition, and brain MRI measures: a cross-sectional examination. Neurology. 2011 Sep 27;77(13):1276-82. Erratum in: Neurology. 2011 Nov 8;77(19):1773.

  7. Skarupski KA, Tangney C, Li H, Ouyang B, Evans DA, Morris MC. Longitudinal association of vitamin B-6, folate, and vitamin B-12 with depressive symptoms among older adults over time. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug;92(2):330-5. Epub 2010 Jun 2.

  8. Tangney CC, Tang Y, Evans DA, Morris MC. Biochemical indicators of vitamin B12 and folate insufficiency and cognitive decline. Neurology. 2009 Jan 27;72(4):361-7.

  9. Morris MC, Schneider JA, Tangney CC. Thoughts on B-vitamins and dementia. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Aug;9(4):429-33. Review.

  10. Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Hebert LE, Scherr PA, Schneider JA. Dietary folate and vitamin B12 intake and cognitive decline among community-dwelling older persons. Arch Neurol. 2005 Apr;62(4):641-5

  11. Moore E, Mander A, Ames D, Carne R, Sanders K, Watters D Cognitive impairment and vitamin B12: a review. Int Psychogeriatr. 2012 Jan 6:1-16. [Epub ahead of print]

  12. McCaddon, A. and Kelly, C.L. Familial Alzheimer's disease and vitamin B12 deficiency. Age and Ageing, Vol. 23, July 1994, pp. 334-37
  13. Wang, H-X, et al. Vitamin B12 and folate in relation to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, Vol. 56, No. 9, May 8, 2001, pp. 1188-94
  14. Miller, Joshua W. Vitamin B12 deficiency, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor: a novel function of vitamin B12? Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 60, May 2002, pp. 142-51
  15. Eussen, S. J. Effect of oral vitamin B-12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B-12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 84, August 2006, pp. 361-70