Vitamin B12 Deficiency: What are the consequences?

  Home Nutrition Brain Health Energy Treatment Contact  


Scientific publications on vitamin B12 and Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis 

  1. Burke A, Lichtenstein GR, Rombeau JL. Nutrition and ulcerative colitis. Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol. 1997 Mar;11(1):153-74. Review.

  2. Silvennoinen J. Relationships between vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density in inflammatory bowel disease. J Intern Med. 1996 Feb;239(2):131-7

  3. Vagianos K, Bernstein CN. Homocysteinemia and B vitamin status among adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease: A one-year prospective follow-up study Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011 May 20. doi: 10.1002/ibd.21785. [Epub ahead of print]

  4. Sikora SK, Spady D, Prosser C, El-Matary W. Trace elements and vitamins at diagnosis in pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2011 Jun;50(6):488-92. Epub 2011 Feb 11.

  5. Chen M, Peyrin-Biroulet L, George A, Coste F, Bressenot A, Bossenmeyer-Pourie C, Alberto JM, Xia B, Namour B, Guéant JL. Methyl deficient diet aggravates experimental colitis in rats. J Cell Mol Med. 2010 Dec 29. doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2010.01252.x.

  6. Voegtlin M, Vavricka SR, Schoepfer AM, Straumann A, Voegtlin J, Rogler G, Ballabeni P, Pittet V, Buser A, Fried M, Beglinger C; Swiss IBD Cohort Study. Prevalence of anaemia in inflammatory bowel disease in Switzerland: a cross-sectional study in patients from private practices and university hospitals. J Crohns Colitis. 2010 Dec;4(6):642-8. Epub 2010 Aug 12.

  7. Mortimore M, Florin TH. A role for B₁₂ in inflammatory bowel disease patients with suppurative dermatoses? An experience with high dose vitamin B₁₂ therapy. J Crohns Colitis. 2010 Oct;4(4):466-70. Epub 2010 Mar 21.

  8. Bager P, Befrits R, Wikman O, Lindgren S, Moum B, Hjortswang H, Dahlerup JF. The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency in IBD outpatients in Scandinavia. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2011 Mar;46(3):304-9. Epub 2010 Nov 15.

  9. Yakut M, Ustün Y, Kabaçam G, Soykan I. Serum vitamin B12 and folate status in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Eur J Intern Med. 2010 Aug;21(4):320-3. Epub 2010 Jun 8.

  10. Jiang Y, Zhao J, Jiang T, Ge L, Zhou F, Chen Z, Lei Y, Huang S, Xia B. Genetic polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase G1793A, hyperhomocysteinemia, and folate deficiency correlate with ulcerative colitis in central China. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Jun;25(6):1157-61.

  11. Akbulut S, Altiparmak E, Topal F, Ozaslan E, Kucukazman M, Yonem O. Increased levels of homocysteine in patients with ulcerative colitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2010 May 21;16(19):2411-6.

  12. Schulz RJ, Bischoff SC, Koletzko B; Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine. Gastroenterology - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 15. Ger Med Sci. 2009 Nov 18;7:Doc13. Review.

  13. Gomollón F, Gisbert JP. Anemia and inflammatory bowel diseases. World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Oct 7;15(37):4659-65. Review.

  14. M'Koma AE, Wise PE, Schwartz DA, Muldoon RL, Herline AJ. Prevalence and outcome of anemia after restorative proctocolectomy: a clinical literature review. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009 Apr;52(4):726-39. Review.

  15. Banait VS, Sandeep MS, Shetty S, Bapat MR, Rathi PM, Ghosh K, Mohanty D, Abraham P. Hypercoagulable state in idiopathic ulcerative colitis: role of hyperhomocysteinemia and hyperfibrinogenemia. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2008 May-Jun;27(3):94-8

  16. Chen M, Peyrin-Biroulet L, Xia B, Guéant-Rodriguez RM, Bronowicki JP, Bigard MA, Guéant JL. Methionine synthase A2756G polymorphism may predict ulcerative colitis and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T pancolitis, in Central China.BMC Med Genet. 2008 Aug 13;9:78.

  17. Chiarello PG, Penaforte FR, Japur CC, Souza CD, Vannucchi H, Troncon LE. Increased folate intake with no changes in serum homocysteine and decreased levels of C-reactive protein in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Dig Dis Sci. 2009 Mar;54(3):627-33. Epub 2008 Jul 17.

  18. Erzin Y, Uzun H, Celik AF, Aydin S, Dirican A, Uzunismail H. Hyperhomocysteinemia in inflammatory bowel disease patients without past intestinal resections: correlations with cobalamin, pyridoxine, folate concentrations, acute phase reactants, disease activity, and prior thromboembolic complications. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 May-Jun;42(5):481-6.

  19. Phelip JM, Ducros V, Faucheron JL, Flourie B, Roblin X. Association of hyperhomocysteinemia and folate deficiency with colon tumors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008 Feb;14(2):242-8.

  20. Zepeda-Gómez S, Montano-Loza A, Zapata-Colindres JC, Vargas-Vorackova F, Majluf-Cruz A, Uscanga L. Oral challenge with a methionine load in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a better test to identify hyperhomocysteinemia. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008 Mar;14(3):383-8.

  21. Dickey W. A case of sequential development of celiac disease and ulcerative colitis. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Aug;4(8):463-7.

  22. Vagianos K, Bector S, McConnell J, Bernstein CN. Nutrition assessment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2007 Jul-Aug;31(4):311-9.

  23. Peyrin-Biroulet L, Rodriguez-Guéant RM, Chamaillard M, Desreumaux P, Xia B, Bronowicki JP, Bigard MA, Guéant JL. Vascular and cellular stress in inflammatory bowel disease: revisiting the role of homocysteine. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007 May;102(5):1108-15.

  24. Duerksen DR, Fallows G, Bernstein CN. Vitamin B12 malabsorption in patients with limited ileal resection. Nutrition. 2006 Nov-Dec;22(11-12):1210-3.

  25. Giannini S, Martes C. Anemia in inflammatory bowel disease. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol. 2006 Sep;52(3):275-91. Review. English,

  26. Drzewoski J, Gasiorowska A, Małecka-Panas E, Bald E, Czupryniak L. Plasma total homocysteine in the active stage of ulcerative colitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Apr;21(4):739-43.

  27. Roblin X, Germain E, Phelip JM, Ducros V, Pofelski J, Heluwaert F, Oltean P, Faucheron JL, Bonaz B. [Factors associated with hyperhomocysteinemia in inflammatory bowel disease: prospective study in 81 patients]. Rev Med Interne. 2006 Feb;27(2):106-10.

  28. Zezos P, Papaioannou G, Nikolaidis N, Vasiliadis T, Giouleme O, Evgenidis N. Hyperhomocysteinemia in ulcerative colitis is related to folate levels. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Oct 14;11(38):6038-42.

  29. Mahmood A, Needham J, Prosser J, Mainwaring J, Trebble T, Mahy G, Ramage J. Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia, activated protein C resistance and prothrombin gene mutation in inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 17(7):739-44.

  30. Gasche C, Lomer MC, Cavill I, Weiss G. Iron, anaemia, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Gut. 2004 Aug;53(8):1190-7. Review.

  31. Jayaprakash A, Creed T, Stewart L, Colton B, Mountford R, Standen G, Probert C. Should we monitor vitamin B12 levels in patients who have had end-ileostomy for inflammatory bowel disease? Int J Colorectal Dis. 2004 Jul;19(4):316-8. Epub 2003 Nov 15.

  32. Nakano E, Taylor CJ, Chada L, McGaw J, Powers HJ. Hyperhomocystinemia in children with inflammatory bowel disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2003 Nov;37(5):586-90.

  33. Goh J, O'Morain CA. Review article: nutrition and adult inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Feb;17(3):307-20.

  34. Ghezzi A, Zaffaroni M. Neurological manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders, with particular reference to the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Neurol Sci. 2001 Nov;22 Suppl 2:S117-22. Review.

  35. Skeen MB. Neurologic manifestations of gastrointestinal disease. Neurol Clin. 2002 Feb;20(1):195-225, vii. Review.

  36. Ventura P, Panini R, Verlato C, Scarpetta G, Salvioli G. Hyperhomocysteinemia and related factors in 600 hospitalized elderly subjects. Metabolism. 2001 Dec;50(12):1466-71.

  37. Kuisma J, Nuutinen H, Luukkonen P, Järvinen H, Kahri A, Färkkilä M. Long term metabolic consequences of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 Nov;96(11):3110-6.

  38. Papa A, De Stefano V, Danese S, Chiusolo P, Persichilli S, Casorelli I, Zappacosta B, Giardina B, Gasbarrini A, Leone G, Gasbarrini G. Hyperhomocysteinemia and prevalence of polymorphisms of homocysteine metabolism-related enzymes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 Sep;96(9):2677-82

  39. Cronin CC, Shanahan F. Anemia in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 Aug;96(8):2296-8. No abstract available.

  40. Alpers DH. Use of macro- and micronutrients for nutrition support in inflammatory bowel disease. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Clin Perform Programme. 1999;2:155-67; discussion 167-70. Review. No abstract available.

  41. Romagnuolo J, Fedorak RN, Dias VC, Bamforth F, Teltscher M. Hyperhomocysteinemia and inflammatory bowel disease: prevalence and predictors in a cross-sectional study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 Jul;96(7):2143-9.

  42. Larrodé P, Ramón Y Cajal S, Iñíguez C, Sopeña F, González P, Morales F. [Peripheral neuropathy associated with intestinal inflammatory disease]. Neurologia. 2001 Mar;16(3):133-7. Spanish.

  43. Geerling BJ, Badart-Smook A, Stockbrügger RW, Brummer RJ. Comprehensive nutritional status in recently diagnosed patients with inflammatory bowel disease compared with population controls. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jun;54(6):514-21.

  44. Christl SU, Scheppach W. Metabolic consequences of total colectomy. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1997;222:20-4. Review.

  45. Bjarnason I, Sharpstone DR, Francis N, Marker A, Taylor C, Barrett M, Macpherson A, Baldwin C, Menzies IS, Crane RC, Smith T, Pozniak A, Gazzard BG. Intestinal inflammation, ileal structure and function in HIV. AIDS. 1996 Oct;10(12):1385-91

  46. Schlup M, Chang A, Chadwick D, Ferry D, Chadwick V. Potential of measurements of unsaturated vitamin B12-binding capacity in serial colonoscopic biopsy specimens for global and regional assessments of disease severity in inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1993 Nov;28(11):1005-10.

  47. Chadwick VS, Schlup MM, Ferry DM, Chang AR, Butt TJ. Measurements of unsaturated vitamin B12-binding capacity and myeloperoxidase as indices of severity of acute inflammation in serial colonoscopy biopsy specimens from patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1990 Dec;25(12):1196-204.

  48. Fernandez-Banares F, Abad-Lacruz A, Xiol X, Gine JJ, Dolz C, Cabre E, Esteve M, Gonzalez-Huix F, Gassull MA. Vitamin status in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 1989 Jul;84(7):744-8.

Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Crohn’s disease

  1. Fernández-Bañares F, Monzón H, Forné M. A short review of malabsorption and anemia. World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Oct 7;15(37):4644-52. Review

  2. Chaoui F, Hellal H, Balamane M, Boudhane M, Mikol J, Masmoudi A. [Colonic Crohn's disease complicated with peripheral neuropathy]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1990;14(11):869-72. French.

  3. Kuroki F, Iida M, Tominaga M, Matsumoto T, Hirakawa K, Sugiyama S, Fujishima M. Multiple vitamin status in Crohn's disease. Correlation with disease activity. Dig Dis Sci. 1993 Sep;38(9):1614-8.

  4. Dommisse J. Bipolar disorder and Crohn's disease. J Clin Psychiatry. 1992 Jan;53(1):29. No abstract available.

  5. Pedersen NT, Rannem T. A triple isotope technique for estimation of fat and vitamin B12 malabsorption in Crohn's disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1991 Mar;26(3):307-12.

  6. Lambert D, Benhayoun S, Adjalla C, Gelot MA, Renkes P, Felden F, Gerard P, Belleville F, Gaucher P, Guéant JL, Nicolas JP. Crohn's disease and vitamin B12 metabolism. Dig Dis Sci. 1996 Jul;41(7):1417-22.

  7. Behrend C, Jeppesen PB, Mortensen PB. Vitamin B12 absorption after ileorectal anastomosis for Crohn's disease: effect of ileal resection and time span after surgery. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1995 May;7(5):397-400.

  8. Bayat M, Brynskov J, Dige-Petersen H, Hippe E, Lønborg-Jensen H. Direct and quantitative vitamin B12 absorption measurement in patients with disorders in the distal part of the bowel. Comparison of stool spot test [SST] with whole body counting in patients with ileal pelvic reservoir, ileostomy or Crohn's disease. Int J Colorectal Dis. 1994 May;9(2):68-72.

  9. Gobbelé R, Reith W, Block F. [Cerebral vasculitis as a concomitant neurological illness in Crohn's disease]. Nervenarzt. 2000 Apr;71(4):299-304. German.

  10. Barton R. Macrocytic anaemias. Three fifths of patients with Crohn's disease that has not been operated on have vitamin B12 malabsorption. BMJ. 1997 May 24;314(7093):1552. No abstract available.

  11. Vasilopoulos S, Saiean K, Emmons J, Berger WL, Abu-Hajir M, Seetharam B, Binion DG. Terminal ileum resection is associated with higher plasma homocysteine levels in Crohn's disease. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2001 Aug;33(2):132-6.

  12. Maire F, Beaugerie L, Cohen M, Deschamps A, Cosnes J, Capeau J, Gendre JP. [Factors associated with hyperhomocysteinemia in Crohn's disease]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2001 Aug-Sep;25(8-9):745-8. French.

  13. Tielman G, Allah-Kouadio E, Guillemot F. [Vitamin B12 deficiency revealing asymptomatic Crohn's disease]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2007 Feb;31(2):195-7. French.

  14. Ahmed M, Jenkins HR. Vitamin B-12 in Crohn's disease patients with small bowel surgery. Arch Dis Child. 2004 Mar;89(3):293. No abstract available.

  15. Roblin X, Phelip JM, Genevois M, Ducros V, Bonaz B. Hyperhomocysteinaemia is associated with osteoporosis in patients with Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Apr 1;25(7):797-804.

  16. El Moutawakil B, Rafai MA, Gam I, Tahiri JM, Rhimou A, Slassi I. [Crohn's disease presenting with recurrent acute polyradiculoneuropathy]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2007 Feb;163(2):244-6. French.

  17. Kulnigg S, Gasche C. Systematic review: managing anaemia in Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Dec;24(11-12):1507-23. Review.

  18. Headstrom PD, Rulyak SJ, Lee SD. Prevalence of and risk factors for vitamin B(12) deficiency in patients with Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008 Feb;14(2):217-23.

  19. Wiese D, Lashner B, Seidner D. Measurement of nutrition status in Crohn's disease patients receiving infliximab therapy. Nutr Clin Pract. 2008 Oct-Nov;23(5):551-6.